NIGERIAN NATIONAL BROADBAND PLAN 2020-2025: The Policy Thrust
The Honourable Minister of Communications and Digital Economy through Presidential directives inaugurated the Nigerian National Broadband Plan 2020-2025 Presidential Committee on Monday 16th December, 2019. The Committee, made up of industry stakeholders and representatives of key government agencies, supported by non-governmental and civil society organizations along with development partners, worked assiduously in producing the Nigerian National Broadband Plan 2020-2025 being a continuation of efforts towards the diversification of the Nigeria economy necessitating for ubiquitous broadband access.
Note that President Buhari led federal government in recognition of the economic growth opportunities afforded by the deployment of broadband technologies with revelation that every 10% increase in broadband penetration results in about 2.6% to 3.8% growth in GDP informed government‘s decision on the renaming of the Federal Ministry of Communications to the Federal Ministry of Communications and Digital Economy in October, 2019 as well as the unveiling of the National Digital Economic Policy and Strategy in November of the same year to work with all relevant government agencies to ensure than Nigeria rapidly expand her digital economy to exploit the immense opportunities on the continent and the globe.
Recall, the Committee was made up of 32 industry experts and was chaired by Funke Opeke. The development of a Broadband Plan according to Dr. Isa Ali Ibrahim (Pantami), Honourable Minister, Federal Ministry of Communications and Digital Economy aligns with global best practice and the constitution of the Committee is in line with the powers of the minister as stated in Section 23(a) of the Nigerian Communications Act 2003 which stated
“the Minister shall be responsible for “the formulation, determination and monitoring of the general policy for the communications sector in Nigeria with a view to ensuring, amongst others, the utilization of the sector as a platform for the economic and social development of Nigeria.”
The Nigerian Broadband Plan 2020-2025 according to Dr. (Pantami), the minister, addresses three (3) of the eight (8) priorities that the Federal Government assigned to the Federal Ministry of Communications and Digital Economy, and the parastatals under its purview, for implementation. These priorities areas are the implementation of broadband connectivity and execution of a plan to deploy 4G across the country, as well as the development and implementation of a digital economy policy and strategy.
The minister further affirmed that broadband supports the development of the digital economy, noting, a focus on growing the National Digital Economy will also improve and diversify the nation’s traditional economy.
The broadband plan is designed to deliver data download speeds across Nigeria at a minimum of 25Mbps in urban areas, and 10Mbps in rural areas, with effective coverage availability to at least 90% of the population by 2025 at a price not more than N390 per 1GB of data (2% of median income or 1% of minimum wage)”. This has already begins to see the light judging on the available data from Speedtest Intelligence which analysis of the speed performance of four mobile service providers across Africa as published by Ookla Insight shows Airtel Nigeria recorded a median download speed of 30.35 Mbps and a median upload speed of 10.28 Mbps while MTN (26.30 Mbps download and 9.13 Mbps upload) in the Q2 2022. Airtel with better speed, MTN had better 4G Availability. As of Q2 2022, MTN Nigeria commanded 38.9% of Nigeria’s mobile users, with its 74.1 million subscribers almost double that of Airtel’s 46.0 million.
Those speeds are set to increase as both companies have invested heavily into network infrastructure, with a combined investment of N208.5 billion ($502million). The investment translates into an increase in 4G Availability as well. In Q2 2022, MTN had 83.8% 4G Availability compared to Airtel’s 77.9%.
The implementation of the Plan according to experts will lead to creation of jobs, improved socio-economic development and sustained economic growth, amongst others. However, it is important to note that the successful implementation of the Plan requires synergy between government and the private sector. As such, the Plan has received input from all stakeholders and will be driven by the private sector, with the government providing the enabling environment.
”As the President directed, I invite all stakeholders to fully support the implementation of the Plan as we seek to position our country to enjoy the benefits that ubiquitous nationwide broadband will provide”, said the minister.
Nigeria being the largest mobile telecommunications market in Africa, largely due to rapid development following the successful auction of Digital Mobile Licenses (DML) in 2001. As at December 2019, the market served over 184 Million Mobile lines, with 126 Million of those lines connected to Internet services. According to the NCC, telecommunication services in the country have grown from a tele-density of lower than 1% on fixed wireline and wireless networks before the DML auctions, to reach approximately 89% population coverage for voice services in 2019 primarily based on 2G/2G+ networks.
Internet services in the country are currently provided on 2G, 3G, 4G and increasingly 5G mobile networks. However, though 5G coverage is available to less than 37% of the population, download speeds in the country are noted to be generally uncompetitive with other countries in the same income bracket.
In recognition of the tremendous economic growth opportunities afforded by the deployment of broadband technologies, Nigeria established its first broadband plan in 2013 for a period of five years. The plan set out to achieve broadband access, defined as minimum download speeds of 1.5Mbps with at least 30% coverage, and an objective of achieving 3G coverage to at least 80% of the population.
Given the current state of technology, development and applications of broadband technology, the 30% penetration achievement lags the aspiration of the country as the developed world marches towards widespread deployment of 5G technologies.
Digital technology offers Nigeria the opportunity to grow and diversify its economy from the overdependence on oil & gas export proceeds. With a teeming population estimated at above 200 Million according to the United Nations (UN), where over half of the population is within the youth age bracket, the country is faced with the tremendous challenge to put this largely unemployed and underemployed population to work. Rapid rollout of broadband services according to industry experts and stakeholders will address various socio-economic challenges faced by the country, including the need to grow its economy, create jobs, rapidly expand the tax base, and improve digital literacy and educational standards as well as also addressing identity management and security challenges through the effective use of technology, increase financial inclusion and deliver a broad range of services to its people to improve the quality of life and work towards attainment of Social Development Goals set by the UN for 2030.
The Honorable Minister of Communications and Digital Economy, Dr. Isa Ali Ibrahim Pantami in pursuit of this mandate developed the National Digital Economy Policy and Strategy, which was unveiled by the President in November 2019.
The strategy identifies eight (8) critical pillars namely; Developmental Regulation, Digital Literacy and Skills, Solid Infrastructure, Service Infrastructure, Digital Services Development & Promotion, Soft Infrastructure, Digital Society & Emerging Technologies and Indigenous Content Promotion & Adoption.
With the development of the Solid Infrastructure pillar as the main focus of the Plan, the nation faces an urgent imperative to deploy a new Broadband Plan in line with these objectives, which have been proven in other countries to make a significant contribution to lifting citizens out of poverty. In order to achieve these ambitious targets, the plan is focused on recommendations in four critical pillars namely infrastructure, policy, demand drivers, funding & incentives.
Reacting to the importance of the NNBP2020-2025 in achieving the federal government’s vision of digital economy, the EVC/CEO,NCC Prof. Danbatta in Bayelsa state said ” the commission is willing to partner with state government and other relevant institutions to ensure universal access and services.
He noted that the implementation of the NNBP is essentially driven by NCC and assured that NCC will ensure that infrastructure gaps in the telecommunication sector are bridged to accomplish the government’s vision in the context of the National Digital Economy Policy and Strategy 2020-2030.
Expatiating further, Danbatta said, to accelerate broadband infrastructure deployment in the south -south geo-political zone where Bayelsa state is situated, the NCC had licensed Messrs Raeaana Limited, as one of the seven licensed infrastructure companies(Infracos) authorized to cascade fibre to deepen the penetration of broadband services in all nooks and crannies of the country and therefore call that states across the country are better position to close the gaps.
Also, achieving the plan requires government spending and significant expenditures to be focused on electricity and other infrastructure areas of the economy, though the plan relies on being led and funded by the private sector to ensure its realization, coupled with appropriate incentives from government which require better alignment of interests between industry players and the government to achieves optimal success; government will be required to provide necessary incentives to private sector players and to create a more enabling environment for existing operators and potential new investors to drive additional investment into broadband infrastructure and services in the country.
Some of these efforts seemly are already on ground while others are underway with progress towards the finalization of the Executive Order on Critical National Infrastructure Protection being quite advanced and significant positive engagement between the Ministry of Communications & Digital Economy and the Nigerian Governors Forum on agreeing to hold RoW fees at N145/linear meter, contrary to the prevailing non-uniform fee regimes. Nonetheless, the plan remains ambitious given the capital requirements estimated at a range of $3.5- $5 Billion to achieve effective execution over the five year period of 2020 – 2025 and can only be achieved if government and Private sector align and harmonize activities regarding spending and incentives to achieve optimal results. This plan has been developed with the commitment of a wide range of Nigerians with expertise across the public and private sector and assistance from global institutions and industry partners. The plan is also said to draws on the experience of over 150 countries who have developed similar plans which have been made available in the public domain, as well as significant work by the World Bank, the UN Broadband Commission, ITU and GSMA to assist countries in the development of their broadband plans.
The plan according to industry expert required diligent implementation and adoption of an effective governance framework to ensuring the realization of the plan.
Catalyzing Digitalization to Revamping the Economy
Nigeria, often objectively argued as asunder with economic crisis, major structural and socio-economic challenges, plus significant ethno-religious impediments and systemic failure. The argument therein is that the country’s focus should be on fixing those dreadful problems. Though the above hypothesis is justified by demonstrable examples of corruption, weak institution, crisis (religion, ethnic and tribal), banditry, kidnapping and terrorism across all 36 states of the federation and the federal capital territory, Abuja.
The anti-thesis therefore, reinforced by superior argumentation however, is that a progressive nation that Nigeria aspires to be one, is not defined by its structural and socio-economic challenges rather, by the quality of its leadership, the vision thereof, the ability of the leadership to inspire the confidence and support of the people through the formulation, and implementation of effective laws and policies, on the one hand. And, on the other hand, the strategic foresight and presence of mind to read global trends – and effectively adapt to- the complexities, uncertainties, volatility and the ambiguities therein.
Anchored upon this hypothesis, is the crux of this disquisition: “Catalyzing Digitalization to Revamping the Economy”. Gearing from first principles and sharpening the subject’s conceptual understanding, a digital economy (also known as digitalization or the new economy) as the name evinces, is one whereby internet-based technology underpins economic and commercial activities with relatively minimal, as contradistinguished from absolutely absent, human intermediation.
The digital economy is territorial and extra-territorial as well as impacts virtually every aspect of human interaction including artificial intelligence, avionics, back propagation-algorithms, agriculture, security, banking, defence, engineering, financial inclusion, healthcare delivery etc. It extends to cybersecurity, exploration and production, financial services, legal services, machine learning, manufacturing, media, mobile technology, robotics, telecoms, the internet of things (IoT), space administration, virtual engineering and more.
The new economy highlights the inescapable hyper-connectivity of people and businesses with automation, cloud computing, data, devices, platforms, processes and services. Well, in consequence of the exponential hyper-connectivity unleashed by the digital economy, trillions of US dollars of online transactions are executed daily globally upon which hundreds of millions of lives depend. Credited to the new economy, people has surfaced with the concept of “disruptive” technology. Disruptive because digitalization has upended traditional business models; 13 to 6 jobs as previously known, are gone in several industries; unemployment has increased because modern technology has displaced and replaced, humans across swathes of Business-to-Consumer (B2C) and Business-to-Business (B2B) services across the glob.
To further put this into perspective, financial services around the world are almost routinely executed across a variety of portable technology driven devices viz tablets, mobile phones, laptops; and in the more developed economies the “cashless” strategy is gaining robust foundations daily. Equally, across certain climes, primary health care physicians routinely interface with patients, diagnose medical conditions and offer prescriptions online, just as tertiary care surgeons undertake keyhole surgery via the agency of technological applications. Plus, an unintended consequence of the virulent COVID-19 pandemic was to exponentially increase remote working models. Paradoxically, the unintended consumer choice, transformed the world of work, as was previously known, resulting in transformative gains for the digital economy. Full-time home working, a strikingly sharp increase in virtual meetings necessitating reliance on technological devices, cloud services and data with mixed outcomes for different industry segments. This out went, humongous open plan offices, luxurious company cars, expensive leases, premium parking and all their attendant costs on recurrent budgets.
On the plus side, the revenue stream of technology-based firms in particular increased sharply. Apple reported net income of 99.8 billion U.S dollar in its 2022 fiscal year which correspond to the third calendar quarter of the year. For the quarter, Apple posted revenue of $90.1 billion and net quarterly profit of U.S $20.7 billion while Alphabet in the second quarter of 2022 announced revenue amounted to over $69.6 billion with a U.S $16 billion net income and Microsoft amid the dynamic business environment in 2022 reported $198 billion in revenue and $83 billion in operating income. Progressively, this what broadband access holds for the Nigeria’s economy in the nearest future given the successful implementation Nigerian National Broadband Plan2020-2025 and other needed regulatory framework, infrastructures, partnership and collaboration as the sector progresses.
Conversely, the income of energy firms emanating from businesses, the revenue streams of real estate and transport firms, and supporting industries plummeted because individuals could not lawfully travel to work at the time. The case for commercial rents and long leases was therefore difficult to rationally justify. Nevertheless, it is incontestable that a key outcome for humanity was the reduction of carbon footprints globally implying cleaner air and thus healthier lungs for all in that period. In simple terms, the digital economy has completely reconfigured the information and data commoditization, B2B and B2C interactions, healthcare, service delivery, human interactions, the movement of goods and capital et al.
How then, given the emanating benefits and challenges of the digital economy, the unique complexities and structural challenges outlined above, has Nigeria exploited and how will it exploit going forward the enormous opportunities afforded by digitalization? Several factors have informed Nigeria’s growing exploitation of the digital economy.
Hitherto, the state telecoms monopoly, NITEL, proved incapable of delivering qualitative value-added services to consumers. The services were poor, often inaccessible, and even when accessible, was beyond the reach of an average Nigerian. Alas, the tectonic plates shifted! privatization, and with it, drive, enterprise, innovation and risk capital completely altered that perverse, albeit comfortable, orthodoxy. Mobile telecoms penetration in the country according to the Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC) was 218,608,607 in November 2022. In August 2019, mobile penetration was 122, 975,740. That represents a 77% increase in just 3 years. Relative to the Nigerian population, 218, 913, 829 (Worldometers), that means approximately 99% of the population has access to mobile telecoms going by a line per head and, by extension, is touched by the digital economy to a greater extent.
Second, the Nigerian Communications Act (NCA) 2003 provides a robust statutory framework which purports to strike the right balance between widely defined telecoms industry regulation and enforcement on the one hand, and innovation and catalyzing enterprise on the other hand. Section 1 (c), (d) and (e), therein affirm that the policy objectives are to promote the, provision of modern, universal, efficient, reliable, affordable and easily accessible communications services and the widest range thereof throughout Nigeria. It aims to encourage local and foreign investments in the Nigerian communications industry and to introduce innovative services and practices in the industry in accordance with international best practices and trends; and to ensure fair competition in all sectors of the Nigerian communications industry whilst encouraging participation of Nigerians in the ownership, control and management of communications companies and organisations.
Ojumu Esq, the Principal Partner, Balliol Myers LP, a firm of legal practitioners asserted, the NCA envisaged the transformation of the digital economy and was positioned to optimise (and is optimising) the phenomenal opportunities therein for the benefit of the population. Added to that is the seminal National Digital Economy Policy and Strategy (NDEPS) 2020-2030. NDEPS reinforces the NCA and the United Nation’s Broadband Commission’s 2025 Advocacy Targets, and outlines 8 cardinal principles to transform the digital economy viz: 1. Developmental Regulation; 2. Digital Literacy & Skills; 3. Solid Infrastructure; 4. Service Infrastructure; 5. Digital Services Development & Promotion; 6. Soft Infrastructure; 7. Digital Society & Emerging Technologies; and 8. Indigenous Content Development & Adoption.
Third, is the growing financial inclusion under the agency of mobile banking devices which are all underpinned by smart hardware and computer software applications. For example, it is common to find small local food vendors, doubling as alliterative mobile money operators (MMOs) offering “banking services” to the public via their electronic point of sale devices. That way, the elderly, the disabled (but not unable!), the frail, young students, and others, are able to access money from their accounts via the MMOs.
Data analysis from the Nigerian Inter-Bank Settlement Systems (NIBSS) established a 128% increase in financial transactions via mobile telecoms devices to153 million through January and April 2022; up from 67 million transactions through January and April 2021 and a cashless transaction rose by 41.75 percent to N318.66tn in the first months of 2022 according to new industry statistics from the Nigeria Inter-Bank Settlement System. This suggests a positive growth trajectory for financial inclusion that’s well-embedded with the digital economy through broadband access.
Nevertheless, there are countervailing arguments. The first is the heightened state of insecurity across the country which necessarily impedes investment in physical data centres and related information and communications technology (ICT) infrastructure.
The second is the seemingly eternal evasive power supply. Individuals and firms invest billions of naira annually in alternative power supply. The opportunity costs therein are huge and include capital which could be invested in diverse business and job-creation endeavours; the propensity to improve health outcomes because of the reduction in environmental pollution and the concomitant exposure to toxic fumes. The corollary is the likelihood of higher life expectancy on that score alone as earlier alluded.
Third, is the enormous challenge of interoperability and interconnectivity amongst technology solutions providers partly due to integration complexities and strategic contestability. The latter implies the quest for greater market share and a reluctance to share commercial knowhow which, in holistic terms, benefits the market and enhances the effectiveness of the industry; without compromising return on investments.
The Nigerian Communication Commission has no doubt made enormous strides in the digitalization though more is expected going forward. This is underpinned by effective legal frameworks and policies, active private sector participation, growing financial inclusion, and increasing demographic penetration. The National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) affirmed that the contribution of the Nigerian Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sector to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) increased to 20.32 percent in Q3 2022, the highest in five years.
According to the Q3 report released by the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), the sector saw an increase in growth of 9.15 percent in 2022 compared to the preceding years where it recorded 11.2, 15.9, 11.2, and 12.1 percent, respectively.
NBS reported that the non-oil sector grew by 4.27 percent in the third quarter of 2022, and was driven mainly by Information and Communication (Telecommunication), Trade, Transportation (Road Transport), Financial and Insurance (Financial Institutions); Agriculture (Crop Production) and Real Estate, accounting for positive GDP growth.
This growth is as a result of the number of digital literacy in the economy, many Nigeria has been empowered with digital knowledge, especially on broadband penetration,
“The industry has also increased its service in the rural area, this means that technology is gradually advancing to the low and untented environment in the economy”.
Data from the report disclosed that the nominal sector saw a 9.85 percent increase in the third quarter of 2022, higher than 9.22 percent recorded in the same quarter of 2021.
While the real sector recorded an increase of 0.87 percent from 15.35 percent recorded in 2022 and 14.20 percent recorded in 2021.
However, the country’s ICT sector comprises four activities – Telecommunications and Information Services, Publishing, Motion Picture, Sound Recording, and Music Production; and Broadcasting.
The sector’s growth was driven largely by revenue from telephone, telex, Facsimile, telegraph, and other income from satellite and internet services.
Though the task of bridging the digital divide between those at different ends of the income distribution spectrum remains. The country’s capacity to invest directly to any significant degree in the digital economy (whether in the education or health sector) is imperiled by huge financial encumbrances. Nigeria’s debt profile from January 2022 through June 2022 was N42.8 trillion (Debt Management Office), whereas revenue from January 2022 through April 2022 according Nairametrics was N1.63 trillion.
Then again, investment in the ICT sector is largely driven by the private sector, whereas government sets the policy framework for growth and investment. Be that as it may, the provisions of section 18 (1) (2) the Nigerian 1999 Constitution clearly enunciates that “Government shall direct its policy towards ensuring that there are equal and adequate educational opportunities at all levels; government shall promote science and technology”
Investment decisions by market participants and new entrants will always be informed by their own strategic calculations. Indeed, Jeff Bezos, of the Amazon, reaffirms the optimistic philosophy contained in the opening paragraph viz “there is no alternative to digital transformation. Visionary companies will carve out strategic options for themselves – those that don’t will fail”
Nearly three years after the launch of Nigeria’s National Broadband Plan, which seeks to cover 90 percent of the population by 2025, the broadband penetration rate in the country is though moving progressively and at snail pace at different interval within the period under review.
Nigeria’s broadband penetration stood at 44.55 percent as of October 2022. The country has set a 70 percent penetration target by 2025. This means Nigeria has additional 24.49 percent in terms of broadband coverage to achieve.
In 2020, when the broadband plan was launched, penetration stood at 38.49 percent. At the current 45.55 percent penetration, it implies a growth of only about 7 percent in the two years the plan has been in force. If the pace of growth does not increase in the next three years, the country is most likely to miss the 70 percent target but not missing the target required that the eight proposed initiatives are achieved in the next three years.
PanAfric Ethos Magazine’s analysis of the progress achieved and the progress of the initiatives shows gaps that need to be bridged to further speed things up, otherwise, the plan would likely not be achieved. Further more, the initiatives pillars should be given the needed consideration.
ISSUANCE OF EXECUTIVE ORDER FOR CNI
Critical National Assets and Infrastructure refer to assets, services, and systems that support the economic, political, and social life of a nation. Operators have always argued that classifying telecom infrastructure as CNI would reduce cases of dropped calls, bad internet, and terrible network delivery.
Towards the end of 2019, the federal government expressed readiness and plan to issue an executive order to declare telecommunications infrastructure as critical national infrastructure. In June 2020, Ali Isa Pantami, minister of communications and digital economy, said President Muhammadu Buhari had approved and also directed that necessary physical protective measures be put in place to safeguard telecommunications infrastructure deployed across the country.
Note, the President did not issue any executive order declaring the telecom infrastructure as critical national infrastructure. Operators have also said it would take more than an executive order to provide adequate protection for telecom infrastructure. To do so would require legislation.
The industry has been pushing to make telecoms infrastructure national assets since 2004, when a bill to make electricity and other critical infrastructure national assets was passed. The bill has since been renamed the Critical National Infrastructure bill and introduced in the National Assembly in February 2021. It has since not made any significant progress since it reintroduction.
ENSURE OPEN ACCESS, PREVENT OVERLAP
By ensuring open access and preventing overlap, the Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC) is trying to reduce the situation where a lot of the operators build fibre infrastructure in the same location, thereby causing glut in that location while other regions are neglected. With open access, an operator can lease their fibre infrastructure to other operators who use it in return for a fee.
The practice is not yet widespread, it is still early days in the telecom industry in Nigeria and there are still conditions that need to be in place to incentivise operators with fibre infrastructure to share with their competitors.
Though, some operators are tapping into fibre swap. Fibre swap means any exchange or lease of fibre optic strands or conduit in exchange for the ownership or use of other fibre optic strands or conduit. For example, an operator that has built fibre infrastructure in Benue but wants to expand to Kwara State can approach another operator with fibre infrastructure in Kwara and wants to expand to Benue. They agree on a deal that allows the parties to swap infrastructures in the various states.
LEVERAGING NIGCOMSAT INFRASTRUCTURE TO REACH RURAL COMMUNITIES
NIGCOMSAT appears to be living up to expectations in other areas, except for delivering internet to rural communities. The NigComSat-1R, which is the only active satellite the country has, provides transponder leasing services on Ku-band, C-band, and Ka-band platforms.
Broadcasters rely on NigComSat-1R to transmit a variety of media content to their customers’ homes, including normal TV, HDTV, and Ultra HD channels, thanks to more than 50 DTH platforms.
But the prohibitive costs of running a satellite make it almost impracticable for rural broadband deployment. It is also important to note that the current NigComSat-1R would be decommissioned as its lifespan ends in 2026. The Nigerian government plans to deploy two new satellites, NigComSat-2 and Nig-ComSat-3 in 2023 and 2025 to replace the expired satellite. The government also plans to leverage the two satellites when they are launched in deploying broadband to rural communities.
ENFORCE NATIONAL UNIFORM ROW CHARGES AT N145
In 2021, the government came very close to galvanising the states to embrace the N145 uniform fee for RoW, with as many as six governors pledging to either reduce the fees to N145 or remove fees altogether.
Only three states have actually implemented their pledge as of December 2022. Mohammed Bello, minister of the Federal Capital Territory, announced in November that telecommunication operators that want to deploy broadband infrastructure in green areas will only pay N14.50 per linear square as RoW charges. The discounted charges would commence on December 1, 2022 and run for the next two years.
The remaining 33 states have taken different approaches.
USE IT OR LOSE IT’ SPECTRUM POLICY
The policy is to ensure effective usage of the spectrum assigned to each operator. The NCC has had a history of investors winning spectrum auctions and not deploying any service with the licence; there is example of a company which won a 3G licence in 2007 but did not use it for two years but later sold the licence double the price it acquired the licence.
The 5G licence issued by the commission to MTN Nigeria and Mafab Communication is still a work in progress. Only MTN Nigeria has deployed while Mafab requested a deadline extension. The NCC granted a five months extension, which elapses in January 2023. Airtel also recently won a 5G licence, which is yet to be issued until the telco has paid the entire $273.6 million reserve price fee.
Achieving these initiatives will determine the success of the targets NCC set in the national broadband plan which is the future of Nigerian economy.